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8 Nisan 2014 Salı

Grammar Summary


infinitive past simple past participle

be was/were been

beat beat beaten

become became become

begin began begun

bend bent bent

bet bet bet

bite bit bitten

blow blew blown

break broke broken

bring brought brought

build built built

burst burst burst

buy bought bought

catch caught caught

choose chose chosen

come came come

cost cost cost

cut cut cut

deal dealt dealt

dig dug dug

do did done

draw drew drawn

drink drank drunk

drive drove driven

eat ate eaten

fall fell fallen

feed fed fed

feel felt felt

fight fought fought

find found found

fly flew flown

forbid forbade forbidden

forget forgot forgotten

forgive forgave forgiven

freeze froze frozen

get got got

give gave given

go went gone

grow grew grown

hang hung hung

have had had

hear heard heard

hide hid hidden

hit hit hit

hold held held


infinitive past simple past participle

hurt hurt hurt

keep kept kept

know knew known

lay laid laid

lead led led

leave left left

lend lent lent

let let let

lie lay lain

light lit lit

lose lost lost

make made made

mean meant meant

meet met met

pay paid paid

put put put

read read read

ride rode ridden

ring rang rung

rise rose risen

run ran run

say said said

see saw seen

seek sought sought

sell sold sold

send sent sent

set set set

sew sewed sewn

shake shook shaken

shine shone shone

shoot shot shot

show showed shown

shrink shrank shrunk

shut shut shut

sing sang sung

sink sank sunk

sit sat sat

sleep slept slept

speak spoke spoken

spend spent spent

split split split

spread spread spread

spring sprang sprung

stand stood stood

steal stole stolen

stick stuck stuck

sting stung stung

stink stank stunk

strike struck struck

swear swore sworn

sweep swept swept

swim swam swum

swing swung swung

take took taken

teach taught taught

tear tore torn

tell told told

think thought thought

throw threw thrown

understand understood understood

wake woke woken

wear wore worn

win won won

write wrote written




may 1- polite requests May I borrow your pen?

2- formal permission You may leave the room.

3- less than 50% Where's John? He may have been

certainty He may be at the library at the library.

might 1- less than 50% Where's John? He might have been

certainty He might be at the library at the library.

2- polite request (rare) Might I borrow your pen?

should 1- advisability I should study tonight I should have studied last night

2- 90% certainty She should do well on the test. She should have done well

(future only, not present) on the test.

ought to 1- advisability I ought to study tonight I ought to have studied last night.

2- 90% certainty She ought to do well on the test. She ought to have done

(future only, not present) well on the test.

had better 1- advisability with You had better be on time, (past form uncommon)

threat of bad result or we will leave without you.

be 1- expectation Class is supposed to begin at 10. Class was supposed to begin at 10.

supposed to

be to 1- strong expectation You are to be here at 9:00. You were to be here at 9:00.

must 1- strong necessity I must go to class today. I had to go to class yesterday.

2- prohibition You must not open that door.


3- 95% certainty Mary isn't in class. She must Mary must have been sick

be sick. (present only) yesterday.

have to 1- necessity I have to go to class tolday I had to go to class yesterday.

2- lack of necessity I don't have to go to class I didn't have to go to class

(negative) today. yesterday.

have got to 1- necessity I have got to go to class today. I had to go to class yesterday.

will 1- 100% certainty He will be here at 6:00.

(future only)

2- willingness The phone's ringing. I'll get it.

3- polite request Will you please pass the salt?

be going to 1- 100% certainty He is going to be here at 6:00.

(future only)

2- definite plan I'm going to paint my bedroom.I was going to paint my room,

(future only) but I didn't have time.



can 1- ability/possibility I can run fast. I could run fast when

I was a child

2- informal permission You can use my car tomorrow.

3- informal polite Can I borrow your pen?


4- impossibility That can't be true! That can't have been true!

(negative only)

could 1- past ability I could run fast when

I was a child.

2- polite request Could I borrow your pen?

Could you help me?

3- suggestion I need help in math. You could have talked

You could talk to your teacher. to your teacher.

4- less than 50% Where's John? He could have been at home.

certainty He could be at home.

5- impossibility That couldn't be true! That couldn't have been

(negative only) true!

be able to 1- ability I am able to help you. I was able to help him.

I will be able to help you.

would 1- polite request Would you please pass the salt?

Would you mind if I left early?

2- reference I would rather go to the park I would rather have gone

than stay home. to the park.

3- preference When I was a child,

I would visit my grandparents

every weekend.

used to 1- repeated action I used to visit my

in the past grandparents every weekend.

shall 1- polite question Shall I open the window?

to make a suggestion

2- future with "I" or I shall arrive at nine

we as subject (will=more common)


accidentally: on purpose,

active: passive

all: none

ask: answer, reply

asleep: awake

back: forward, front

boring: interesting

brave: cowardly

bride: groom

cause: result

cheap: expensive

common: rare

cool: warm

deep: shallow

defense: attack


die: live, be born

fail: succeed

female: male

few: many

first: second, last

friend: enemy

future: past

guilty: innocent

increase: decrease, lessen

kind: unkind, cruel

lose: find, gain

maximum: minimum

noisy: quiet, silent

polite: rude

punishment: reward

remember: forget

simple: complicated, complex

stay: leave

together: apart, separate

true: false

war: peace

well: badly, ill, sick


absent: present

accept: reject

admire: despise

amateur: professional

ascend: descend

bless: curse

child: adult

coastal: inland

conceited: modest

concrete: abstract

contract: expand

drunk: sober

educated, knowledgeable

essential: optional

exterior: interior

extremist: moderate

holy: profane

hope: despair


joy: sorrow

modern: old-fashioned


native: foreigner

natural: artificial

negative: positive, affirmative

niece: nephew, aunt

poverty: riches

pride: humility, modesty

private: public

prosecution: defense

omit include

raise: lower

refuse: consent

rough: smooth, exact

safety: danger, peril

single: double, married,

theory: practice

vacant: occupied

vague: exact, precise

victory: defeat


arm: leg

begin: end

black: white

boy: girl, man

broad: narrow

buy: sell

clean: dirty

cold: hot

drink: eat

far: near

fat: thin

father: mother, son

foot: head, hand

full: empty

hard: soft, easy, gentle

light: dark, heavy

old: new, young

right: wrong, left

short: long, tall

small: large, big

summer: winter

wife: husband




Present Simple for something which happens We go out every Saturday night

regularly or which is a habit

for something which remains true The earth travels round the sun.

for a long time or for a scientific fact

to give instructions First you check the gears and handbrake,

then you switch on the engine.

to describe events in jokes, stories Real Madrid beats A.C Milan.

or news items

for future events on a timetable The match begins at 3.30.

or a fixed program

Present for an event in progress at the Look, they're coming out of the cinema now.

Progresive present time

with always, to show surprise or She's always borrowing money from me.

disapproval when an action is repeated

for a definite arrangement, plan or We're flying to Spain next week.


Present for an event which happened at an I've seen "The Truman Show" twice.

Perfect indefinite time in the past

for an event which began in the She's been a widow for about six months.

past and is still going on

for an event which is finished but I can't write because I've broken my arm.

still effects the present

Present Perfect for an activity which has begun We've been living here

for 6 years.

Progressive in the past and is still going on

Past Simple when a definite point in time is Last night I went to a concert.

mentioned when talking about the past

to describe a past habit When I was at school,

I got up every day at 7 o'clock.

Past for an event which was in progress I was driving along the motorway when

Progressive when another event happened I had a puncture.

for two or more events which were I was digging the garden while John was

in progress at the same time in painting the kitchen.

the past

for an event which had been He was coming to dinner but he had

arranged but which didn't happen to go away on business.

Past Perfect for an event which happened I went back home because I'd forgotten

before another in the past my keys.

Past Perfect to emphasize the continuous activity They had been studying for hours when

Progressive which happened before another in the past they suddenly realized it was midnight.

Be going to for an intention I'm going to write some letters.

for an indication that something is Look at those black clouds.

probable I think it's going to rain.

Will/Shall to make a prediction about the future I guess our team will win the match next week.

Future for an event which will be in progress This time next week I'll

be swimming in

progressive at a certain time in the future the Black Sea.

Future perfect for an event which will be over not They'll have done their homework by

later than a certain time in the future tomorrow.

Future perfect for something still in progress but He'll have been working for the bank

progressive which will be complete not later for 30 years next summer.




1. verb + to

Some verbs require an infinitive in the complement.

afford agree aim

arrange attempt decide

deserve fail forget

hope learn manage

offer plan promise

threaten .... ....

(ex) He decided to study in USA.

(ex) How old were you when you learnt to play golf?

2. verb + ...ing

Some verbs require an -ing form in the complement.

admit avoid consider

delay deny fancy

finish imagine involve

miss practice postpone

stop enjoy ....

(ex) Have you considered studying in another country?

(ex) I enjoyed talking with my friend.

Some verb phrases require an -ing form in the complement.

approve of be better off count on

forget about get through insist on

look forward to object to think of

(ex) How about going to China when you get through studying?

(ex) I looked forward to meeting my old friend.



􀂙 The Lighter Side of TEFL-Thomas Kral

U.S Department of State Office of English Language Programs-1994

􀂙 Lessons with laughter-George Woolard

Language Teaching Publications-1999

􀂙 English Sketches Elementary-Doug Case, Ken Wilson

MacMillan Heinemann Publication

􀂙 English Sketches Intermediate-Doug Case, Ken Wilson

MacMillan Heinemann Publication

􀂙 Chicken Soup for the Soul-Jack Canfield & Mark Victor Hansen

Health Communications Press-1993

􀂙 A 2nd Helping of Chicken Soup for the Soul-Jack Canfield & Mark Victor Hansen

Ebury Press Random House-1993

􀂙 A 3rd Serving of Chicken Soup for the Soul- Jack Canfield & Mark Victor Hansen

Health Communications Press-1996

􀂙 Fairy Tales- SELT Press

􀂙 Children's Favorite Songs- Ultimate Co. Ltd

􀂙 The Book of Questions-Gregory Stock

Workman Publishing-1987

􀂙 Five Minute Activities-Penny Ur&Andrew Wright

Cambridge University Press-1982

􀂙 101 English Idioms-Harry Collis

NTC Publishing Group-1992

􀂙 101 English proverbs- Harry Collis

NTC Publishing Group-1992

􀂙 101 English riddles- Harry Collis

NTC Publishing Group-1996

􀂙 Letter Writing in English-Anna Maria Malkoç

U.S Department of State Office of English Language Programs-2001

􀂙 ELT Materials Data CD- Osman Bedel

􀂙 TOEFL CD- Barron's Educational Series, Inc.

􀂙 Practical Expressions-Murat Öz


􀂙 www.pitara.com

􀂙 www.inspirationalstories.com

􀂙 www.dersimizingilizce.com

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